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Copyright © 2001 by Jo Harris Fischer, all rights reserved.

BACKGROUND HISTORY OF Missouri, previously the 6 Bulls Indian Confederation. 1541 AD 6 Bulls was by treaty placed under the Sovereign of Spain by Desoto. By 1800 AD, 6 Bulls Sovereignship was force ceded to France. Then 1802/3 - 6 Bulls Sovereignship was ceded to the USA for consideration of 15 million dollars. 1802/3 AD to 1812 AD, - 6 Bulls under the sovereign of the USA. 1804 it was divided and organized into "Orleans Territory" and the remainder was "Louisiana regions" annexed to Illinois District annexed to Indiana Territory, (the Louisiana regions embraced what is today's Dallas County, Mo), during this time, in 1808, the Osage sold and ceded 6 Bulls, to her sovereign the USA. But with in a year, the Indians of 6 Bulls, tried to overturn this treaty, and when unsuccessful, declared a war that lasted to 1828.

1809 Indiana Territory separated Illinois District (and her regions) and Illinois became Illinois Territory. So from 1809 to 1812, the Louisiana Regions (Included 6 Bulls Indian Confederation) of Illinois Territory remained under the government of Illinois.

1812 the USA declared Orleans Territory (the southern part of 6 Bulls) a state and named it LOUISIANA, then separated the Louisiana regions (contained the 6 Bulls Indian Confederation DISPUTE INDIAN LANDS OF the 1808 Treaty). This separation of the Louisiana Regions was renamed MISSOURI TERRITORY.

During the existance of Missouri Territory,( from 1812 to 1821), Missouri continued to organize, while the treaty of 1808 dispute continued in the courts. In 1819, Arkansas (middle 6 Bulls lands that were under the leases of the Daniel Boone conglomerate and Family), was separated and became Arkansas Territory. Then in 1821, a small portion of eastern Missouri Territory became Missouri State.

1828, the Indian wars were brought to a brutal halt, and the USA government declared the 1808 treaty valid. The 6 Bulls Indians lost all claims to their lands (These lands were all the lands west of the Mississippi River to the water shed of the Rockies Mountains, and north to south all the lands below the Missouri River to the gulf of Mexico. (See map of 6 Bulls Indian Confederation, 1541-1808.)

For those who are not aware, the treaty of 1541 AD had a protective clause in it that was grandfathered from Spain to France in 1800 and to the USA in 1802/3. This clause prohibited permanent non Indian habitation of 6 Bulls lands, but did not prohibit habitation of lands during "a lease" of these lands. The 6 Bulls lands were often leased to outsiders, the "supposed" oldest known leases were those of Louis Joliet and his MEN OF QUEBEC that extended from 1687 to 1700. and were the western coastal lands west of the Mississippi and Missouri Valley lands below the Missouri River. Leases were from 1 year to 8 years with renewal privileges.

A note regarding a possible lease older that those of Louis Joliet.......in the book MISSOURI THE MIDDLE STATE published 1928, in the chapter "A grave of mystery", this book gives reference to "some French men" finding in 1703, an English Officer's grave, that was quite old, as the man was mummified in his English uniform. He had been buried sitting up right, at a table, in a ROYAL MAUSOLEUM built by the OSAGE This grave site is now located in what is Webster Co, Mo (was a part of Dallas until 1855). The large 4 long sandstone pillar walls (area was 10 by 10) are still are there, in the middle of what is now HUGHES CEMETERY. This grave was discovered three years after Joliet died in 1700. And is estimated to have been more than possibly 30 years old. No information exists regarding this grave other than the description of it and that the gold ornaments found inside melted down to a ball the size of 4 inches in diameter.

After the Joliet and MEN OF QUEBEC leases, over the years, many others leased these lands, under the provisions of the 1541 treaty. By 1767 Col George Morgan began leasing 6 Bulls (lands below the Missouri River Valley and west of the St Francois Mountains, to mine minerals in 6 Bulls, and when his leases became so extensive, he petitioned Spain to form New Madrid Plantation to which he annexed them to. From 1767 to 1799 Col Morgan had organized three Outposts, annexed to his New Madrid Plantation: North (the upper Ozark Plateau now Missouri state), Central (the lower Ozark Plateau now Arkansas state), and South (the Delta lands now Louisiana State). In 1799 Col Morgan was expulsed from Louisiana (6 Bulls) for illegally selling treaty Indian lands. He was exposed prior to the ceding of 6 Bulls to France in 1800. Daniel Boone had leased some of these lands (oldest known record is as early as 1795 but there are statements in his published "personal memoirs" that he was here and brought out ammunitions from 6 Bulls as early as 1766.

Although personal genealogies are personal opinions of family records, the Gumm family descents (Kansas and Oklahoma) give reference to Daniel Boone being in 6 Bulls about this same time as Louis Joliet, and here many times there after, to secure ammunitions (salt petre, lead and iron). Many others aside from Boone and Joliet tried to obtain monopoly to the 6 Bulls minerals, (Boone states in his published memoirs that he was here in 1765 and the records of Joliet give that his first leases were effected in 1767). In the conflicts over the leases, the Osage were incited to massacring the total population of the Joliet mining camp lease surrounding the church of the HOUSE OF GOD OF ST FRANCOIS (St Francois Camp and church of 1,500 men, women and children). And then the Osage proceeded toward RIVER DES PERES TRADING POST with the mining camp surrounding the church of the HOUSE OF GOD OF ST LOUIS. No one escaped from Camp St Francois, but many did escape from River Des Peres and Camp St Louis. After the massacre, Boone made reference to his employee 'Gumm' that the FRENCH LEFT 6 BULLS FOR REASONS OF HEALTH.........IF THEY WANTED TO STAY ALIVE AND HEALTHY THEN THEY GOT THE CARN SARNED HECK OUT OF THERE!. And after this the French lived on the east side of the river and came over to mine their leases and then returned to the east side of the river to their families. The area of the mining camp of St Francois is now the site of Ste Genevieve that was patented in 1735 by the descents of Joliet's MEN OF QUEBEC.

The GUMM ancestor, married into the Osage tribe, and worked for Boone, by manning the station of GUMM SPRINGS from 1799 to 1828. (This area is now Buffalo City and his home was situated where the old WOOD'S supermarket building is now standing on Commercial street, next to the capped artesian well of Gumm Springs which is the water supply for Buffalo City. This Gumm was killed 1828 by incoming homesteaders, who came to legally claim their homesteader lands, which Gumm refused to relinquish. This Gumm family relates that their Osage Indian ancestry often leased the same lands to more than one person at the same time, or just turned their heads and allowed intruders in.....for a price. And that they were involved in the assault on the mining camp of House of God of St Francois and on the mining camp of St Louis that operated the RIVER DES PERES TRADING POST near present day St Louis city. After the terrible massacres, the St Francois area was called MISERE` (French for Miserable) for the Miserable happening there. The mountain range retained the name St Francois. When Col Morgan was expulsed from 6 Bulls, Daniel Boone officially took the deposed Col Morgan leases which had been for several years organized into North, Central and South. Boone did not assume the south due to the massive illegal land sales there and the conflicts with the French and Spanish. He did assume the North and Central, which he renamed MISERE` (after the massacre of St Francois) and Arkansas for the lessor Osage Indians that occupied the lower Ozark Plateau. By 1802 Boone had changed the Spelling of MISERE` to an Americanized spelling of MISSOURIE (this proff of spelling was preserved on a "trading post tally' record of Manual Lisa of the St Louis Fur Trading company dated 1802, and by 1812 the "E" was deleted to spell Missourie as MISSOURI when MISSOURI TERRITORY was formed.

Returning to the topic of the 1808 treaty of 6 Bulls to sell to the USA. In 1808, the USA purchased 6 Bulls, feeling that it would nullify the Spanish dispute to regain Louisiana (claim of default of treaty of 1800 with Spain and France). With the signing of this treaty, Daniel Boone and his cadre of miners who had been working on his leases, were rewarded for their loyalty in manufacturing and shipping ammunitions to the USA, which was a distribution of lands. This was the first legal ownership of lands in 6 Bulls Indian Confederation by other than the "Indian populations", since the 1541 AD treaty.

By 1809 the Indians tried to over turn the 1808 Osage treaty and unsuccessful, they declared war. With the 1808 treaty, Daniel Boone was living "In retirement' at Femme Osage above the Missouri River. In his ownership of the leases he had acquired 2.2 million and had paid off his debts in Kentucky. When the wars broke out, he was contacted by the US military, through his adopted son Col Hardy Goodfellow and a life long friend Col Kenton, who were authorized to commission him to return and lease the 6 Bulls lands from the Osage while the treaty remained in dispute, and continue to manufacture ammunitions for the military. Boone was 72 years old at the time, but agreed to operate, under a corporation conglomerate of his family and lawyers. Prior to this time in 1808, Boone had been awarded what is the present day county of Christian Co, Missouri and was eager to protect it. Also, his son Nathan had extensive lands on the St James River (near present day Springfield, "Ashcroft Palace"). Boone's headquarters "Old North Outpost" (named this, under Col Morgan) was renamed by Boone as Misere`, then Missourie in 1802, then Missouri by 1812 . Today this old headquarters is site of the present day historical landmark of his BOONE'S HUNTING LODGE in Christian County, Missouri.

So 1809, Boone entered into a similar agreement with the government, as he had in 1799-1808, in that he and his extended family, miners and certain others, were to be guaranteed lands for loyal service. (This was referred to as PREEMPTION). From 1809 to 1828 Boone and/or his heirs and his conglomerate controlled the leases of old North (or MISERE`/MISSOURIE/MISSOURI), and old Central (or Arkansas. ) in the DISPUTE TREATY LANDS of old 6 Bulls (all the lands west of the Mississippi's west watershed to the east watershed of the Rockies and north to south all the lands below the Missouri River to the present day boarder of Arkansas and Missouri.

1809 to 1828. Although Boone was the head of this arrangement and contracted to do so because of his immense fame, and popularity with the 6 Bulls Indians - the Osage -, it was his family, his lawyers and then after he died his family that ran these resumed leases. Occasionally he went hunting on his leases accompanied by his son Nathan, who complained bitterly of his father's arthritis and causing a HOLD UP by lagging behind in the hunting parties.

Boone and his heirs were still restricted by the dispute over the 1808 Treaty which was covered under the old 1541 DeSoto treaty......(Old North) Missouri and (Old Central) Arkansas were organized originally by Col Morgan to conform to the restrictions of the 1541 AD Treaty. Under Boone's Occupation, two of the Outposts were the equivalent of states, and his Outpost "camps" were the equivalent of counties. His inhabited villages were operated like the Indians....... they were moveable harvest villages.

Boone and his heirs were in NO HURRY to over power the Indians of 6 Bulls by sheer populations to inhabit this area, (and under Boone and his heirs, there was relative peace under his control) due to the massive money that was being made from the Ammunitions. But by 1817 Boone (age 82) had a massive stroke and was confined to his home at Femme Osage, St Charles Co, Mo. This same year, the government made a commitment with Boone's representatives to formally form a county named Pulaski, from the Boone leases (all of Six Bulls lands that remained within what is now Missouri and Arkansas).

1818, Pulaski Co was formed, but Missouri refused the proposed government of Boone, and with no recognized government, this county was assigned to another new formed county named Franklin that was organized the same day.

1819, When the assembly reformed, before Pulaski Co could present a government to assume control and vote as herself, the assembly got Franklin County to agreed to cede the old Central Outpost of Arkansas to form a new territory of Arkansas. Pulaski stood by helpless as she had no government to have a voice in assembly. This had been anticipated, as there were many from the Indian tribes and the Boone miners of Pulaski Co (formed 1818) at assembly to complain that they were being denied their land claims on the lower Ozark Plateau (now Arkansas). Many of Boone's miners and chiefs of tribes of the Osage of 6 Bulls (upper and lower Ozark or North and Central Posts) were present at this assembly. The devastating shock of this separation of Arkansas and declaring it a Territory, resulted in an eruption of a tomahawking of the assembly by both the Indians and the miners. But Missouri did not back down.....and because Missouri not made provisions to grandfather the agreements of Boone........for lands for his miners...... all miners in the new Territory of Arkansas were given final denial of their preempt lands in 1818-1819. Many considered the Boones traitors, but this was not so. Boone was fragile and dying and with this news, that he could not honor his commitments of lands to his faithful ... he realized that he had been cheated as he was in Kentucky....he died shortly after, in 1820, followed in 4 months by his son Daniel. The Indian wars, which had been "luke warm" prior, now raged and continued to rage until 1828, when the Federal troops stepped in and put a brutal end to them in Missouri.

Although Pulaski Co (formed in 1818) was stripped of her lands in 1819, (the lands that remained in Missouri Territory were further split and divided between Cooper and Wayne counties in 1819 and then recombined and annexed to Gasconade County), she still existed on paper and continued to exist until 1832, when at this time she was officially deposed due to several colonies tried to claim her and organize new counties. (What is now Greene county applied as Osage, but this name was denied, what is now "new" Pulaski County applied as "new" Pulaski Co). These two counties were awarded parts of the original lands of 1818 Pulaski Co, to form their new counties. This same year the county of no lands ("old Pulaski") was formally deposed by Missouri courts, as it had no reason to continue.

1828 at the end of the Indian wars, the USA awarded the "Treaty of 1808 Dispute lands of government less Pulaski Co" lands that remained in Missouri state to Gasconade Co. And Gasconade began the process of collecting money to process the PREEMPTED LANDS to the faithful miners and trappers who had worked the Boone leases. The 4 Aug 1828 tax was assessed. Assessment was for three purposes: of paying for the registration of preempted lands, of paying for the up coming federal tax, and for paying for money to run the government of Gasconade County.

Gasconade prepared the 4 Aug 1828 Tax and census in anticipation of registering the land claims of the Boone Leases Men. But Missouri uncovered a great deal of falsification in the applications and felt that Gasconade would not deal fairly with other new homesteaders that wanted Gasconade lands, so she stepped in and removed these "old Pulaski 1818" lands and ceded them to "new formed" Crawford county for homesteading and formation of counties (of the 5,000 old miners involved, about 4,500 were related to the Boones by marriage or blood). There was also evidence that many had registered for the 4 Aug 1828 tax, because it was "to be proff" that they were miners under the Boone interests.

Of the early history of Missouri, much is lost, and nearly all regarding Dallas County. In a letter from a son of one of the miners... Joseph Malits Span, son of Aaron Span, a miner taxed on the 4 Aug 1828 Gasconade Tax and who first came in 1797 as a nine year old boy, left in 1808 and had returned by 1810 or 11 and lived out the rest of his life here. This letter gives the estimation of these populations for the years 1810, 1821, 1824 and 1828. Some explanations are added in blue. Using Joseph's description of 1 head of house equaled 10 souls, a fair guess is that this tax and census 4 Aug 1828 represents 4,270 souls. (Men women and children.) Letter dated 1853.

"My dear sister......In 1827, you were three years and I seven.........on the headquarters wall was a broad flat board (a map of Missourie OUTPOST the original French spelling of Missouri was Misere`, which is basically the present state of Missouri, this outpost Headquarters is now BOONE'S HUNTING LODGE IN CHRISTIAN CO, MISSOURI) and carved on it, and poked in it were shaved turkey quill pegs. Each peg represented 10 souls, as a head of a household and his family. This map and peg board had been there as long as Father could remember, but he first took note of it about 1810-11 as this was about the time (Col Daniel) Boone started large scale importing of miners and trappers in his first canoe fleets, because the government (USA) needed ammunitions for the up coming Spanish war, which exploded in 1812.... Father (Aaron Span) said that when he escorted (1811-15) ammunitions from the Niangua (Nianga River Basin, Camp Union of North Outpost), he was at the headquarters (North Outpost headquarters at what is now Boone's Hunting lodge, Christian county MO)and there were about 500 pegs then...... (Note: this would be about estimated 500 souls populations then, because it was not safe to bring in families at this time.)  .......By the tax of 1821 there were over 1000 pegs, heads with families between Missouri and Arkansas but not all of these were land owners from 1808. (This population was about 10,000 souls of 1 head of house and 9 with each head.) In 1824 there was in excess of 2,000 pegs or 20,000 souls and by 1828 well beyond 3,500 pegs which could have been over 35,000 souls........ 1809 Boone had an agreement like he had before (1799 to 1808) to populate 6 Bulls legally by organizing Outposts -equal to a state - and camps -equal to a county. (The Outposts had already been established by Col George Morgan prior to 1799, as NORTH -today's Missouri-, CENTRAL -today's Arkansas-and SOUTH -today's Louisiana-. Boone and his conglomerate merely kept them organized as they were.) When there was enough populations to have a bloodless overthrow of the power of the Indians, then the government (USA)would step in, declare the 1808 treaty valid, and award the miners and trappers their promiesed lands, that worked under the Boone leases after his return in 1809. But things did not work out that way. Boone was very sick in 1817 and died 1820, age 84. From the beginning of his return (1809) to his old leases, his corporation of heirs took total control. In 1818 Father was pleased that the Boones successfully got Missouri to let PULASKI COUNTY be formed ,which was all the lands of old 6 Bulls that remained in Missourie Territory. (These extended west to the watershed of the Rockies Mountains.) But then Missouri began denial of miners claims to preempt lands in the lands of old Central (destined to become Arkansas territory in 1819 and Arkansas state by 1836). Uncle John (John Span in 1818 was denied lands in the Bayous near the present day boarder of Arkansas and Missouri states)lost his lands and was furious. He and others, with many of the Osage Indians went to the next assembly (of Missouri Legislature 1819). 1819 the governmentseparated Arkansas (CENTRAL Outpost) and its west lands to the watershed of the Rockies from Missouri territory and named it Arkansas Territory (Missouri Territory had been the Missouri Outpost with its lands to the water shed of the Rockies.)Then declared in court, that the 1808 treaty was valid, and in the next breath, informed the Indians and miners, that the only way to get Missouri lands was that they would have to homestead like everyone else. The indians and miners went insane, Uncle John was in the middle of the mob that tomahawked everything in sight. THE FEDERAL TROOPS WERE CALLED IN AND IT TOOK YEARS TO BRING THE MISSOURI INDIAN WARS TO AN END (wars ended in 1828). Disgruntled, over 3/4ths of the miners left and they had good reasons: (1). they did not get their promiesed lands given to them and would not be considered to receive them until the Indians were gone, (2) they had to remove the Indians themselves (3) many had worked with the Indians for up to 40 years and had married into (Indian) clans (4). the leases of the Boones were over, the high pay for mining and escorting the ammunitions was dried up. (5). All that was left was the removal of the reluctant Indians which meant endangerment of their families in the bloodshed with the Indians and the miners who would side with the Indians. (6) payment for work done was held, Father never did receive his. (6) Much bitterness was added to this, when it was learned that only the BOONE FAMILY received their promiesed lands below the Missouri River (6 Bulls lands). 4 Aug 1828, Gasconade had levied a tax to pay for the registration of lands, and to review requests for honoring of preempt lands. All had to pay the Gasconade Taxes except for the exempted Boones and family and those who had lands allotted from 1808. Those that had left, did so with the feeling they were betrayed by the Boones, when this was not true. It was the government (USA)that betrayed them, by not standing by the Boone agreement for Pulaski Co in 1818. Spain and France were happy by the massive exodus as both wanted 6 Bulls back without war. Spain controlled all the lands to the south and west. France controlled the lands to the north. Both (countries) wanted the GLORY HOLE (of the Niangua River basin for the massive wealth of the minerals of lead, iron and salt petre to manufacture gun powder This is located in what is now Dallas County, Missouri). But the government was quick to stop Spain and France occupation, by opening the lands to American settlers occupation, by squatting........"


  1. Gasconade Tax list and census of 4 Aug 1828, printed in Goodspeed's History of Leclede, Dallas, Camden, Pulaski, Webster, Wright, Texas counties, 1889.
  2. Letters of the Span Children of Aaron Span of Dallas Co., MO, dated 1846 to 1882)
  3. Book: History of Missouri, Muzzy, 1936
  4. Book: Missouri, the Middle State, 1926, two volumes
  5. A personal genealogy of a descent of GUMM of GUMM SPRINGS (now Buffalo, Dallas Co., MO)


  1. 6 Bulls under the sovereign of Spain 1541 to 1800
  2. 6 Bulls under the sovereign of France 1800 to 1802/3
  3. 6 Bulls under the sovereign of the USA
    1. 1802/3 to 1804 Louisiana Purchase
    2. 1804 to 1809 annexed to Indiana Territory's Illinois District which embraced the Louisiana Regions (of which part was 6 Bulls which the USA purchased by treaty of 1808 but went into dispute by 1809 to 1828)
    3. 1809 Illinois Territory, with Louisianna District (embraced 6 Bulls)
    4. 1812 Missouri Territory (embraced 6 Bulls)
    5. 1819 separation of Arkansas Territory
    6. 1821 separation of Missouri State from Missouri Territory
    7. Creation of counties from 1812 to 1850

See also:

1828 Gasconade Co., MO, Tax List
Maps starting at 6 Bulls Indian Confederation

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Last updated: Friday, 24-Oct-2008 19:22:55 MDT